Countertrade is the nomenclature for all forms of non-cash based transactions that have a basic “linkage” characteristic between imports and exports between countries.

Countertrade vehicles are used to alleviate issues related to non-convertible currencies or fluctuating currency values, lack of hard currency, inflation, lack of commercial credit, blocked currencies and limited export markets.

Countertrade is typically initiated by national governments and private sector exporting primary product manufacturers (PM’S).

Countertrade transactions usually take the form of barter, Counter-Purchase, Compensation trade or Offset (although some would debate whether Offset is in fact a form of countertrade).

Countertrade historically has been a very effective business tool for completing large import-export transactions that otherwise would not have occurred, but for implementation of a countertrade based solution.


  • Islamic Research & Trade Institute’s (IRTI) 2002 Report Titled “Countertrade: Policies & Practices in OIC Member Countries”

    This is a very comprehensive study of countertrade. It examines all countertrade model, the history and functionality of each form, and also reviews the benefits and detriments of each countertrade model. More

  • The Global Offset & Countertrade Association (GOCA)

    Member based Countertrade Association that provides its current information and education on multiple aspects of international countertrade. More

  • United Nation’s 1993 Legal Guide on International Countertrade Transactions

    A comprehensive review of, and recommendations for, the legal documentation and structures of properly executed countertrade transactions. More

  • 2015 London South Bank University Dissertation Titled “Maleficent Obligation to Marketing Opportunity: International Success Through Offset & Beyond”

    Thorough review off the benefits and detriments of countertrade and offset programs. Offers protocols for future successful offset transactions. More